Dear editorThe new COVID-19 vaccines become the hope for containing COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). As noted by Ita, many mRNA and DNA vaccines are under trails and the success is expected (1). At present, there are some newly proposed COVID-19 vaccines. As a new vaccine, there are many considerations including to the cost, effectiveness, and feasibility for usage in clinical settings. The different costs and effectiveness of different vaccines might be important factor for decision making for implementation of a new vaccination (3). Additionally, the vaccine that is appropriate for clinical usage, simple for keeping and administration, should be selected. Here, the authors would like to add up on the considerations regarding new COVID-19 vaccines. The authors reappraised on the new day on the five new COVID-19 vaccines (such as Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, Moderna vaccine, Oxford–Astrazeneca...
Researchers are working at unprecedented speed to develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to assess the value of a hypothetical vaccine and its potential public health impact when prioritization is required due to supply constraints. A Markov cohort model was used to estimate COVID-19 related direct medical costs and deaths in the United States (US), with and without implementation of a 60% efficacious vaccine. To prioritize the vaccine under constrained supply, the population was divided into tiers based on age; risk and age; and occupation and age; and outcomes were compared across one year under various supply assumptions. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained versus no vaccine was calculated for the entire adult population and for each tier in the three prioritization schemes. The incremental cost per QALY gained for the US adult population was $8,200...
Given projected shortages of critical care capacity in public hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, the South African government embarked on an initiative to purchase this capacity from private hospitals. In order to inform purchasing decisions, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of intensive care management for admitted COVID-19 patients across the public and private health systems in South Africa. Using a modelling framework and health system perspective, costs and health outcomes of inpatient management of severe and critical COVID-19 patients in (1) general ward and intensive care (GW + ICU) versus (2) general ward only (GW) were assessed. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were evaluated and the cost per admission in public and private sectors was determined. The model made use of four variables: mortality rates, utilisation of inpatient days for each management approach,...
Background: From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, clinical practice and research, globally, have centered on prevention of transmission and treatment of the disease. The pandemic has had a huge impact on the global economy and stressed the health care systems worldwide.Methods: The present study estimates Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), Years of Potential Productive Life Lost (YPPLL) and Cost of Productivity Lost (CPL) due to premature mortality and absenteeism, secondary to COVID-19 in Kerala state, India. Details on sociodemography, incidence, death, quarantine, per capita income etc were dervived from various public sources. 5-year age-gender population, working population in each age-gender cohort and corresponding life expectancies were obtained from Census of India 2011. Data on incidence and recovery time were dervied from CODD-K. Details of deaths were...
In order to recover the damage to the economy by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, many countries consider the transition from strict lockdowns to partial lockdowns through relaxation of preventive measures. In this work, we propose an optimal lockdown relaxation strategy, which is aimed at minimizing the damage to the economy, while confining the COVID-19 incidence to a level endurable by the available healthcare facilities in the country. In order to capture the transmission dynamics, we adopt the compartment models and develop the relevant optimization model, which turns out to be nonlinear. We generate approximate solutions to the problem, whereas our experimentation is based on the data on the COVID-19 outbreak in Sri Lanka.
Governments across the world are currently facing the task of selecting
suitable intervention strategies to cope with the effects of the COVID-19
pandemic. This is a highly challenging task, since harsh measures may result in
economic collapse while a relaxed strategy might lead to a high death toll.
Motivated by this, we consider the problem of forming intervention strategies
to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic that optimize the trade-off
between the number of deceases and the socio-economic costs. We demonstrate
that the healthcare capacity and the testing rate highly affect the optimal
intervention strategies. Moreover, we propose an approach that enables
practical strategies, with a small number of policies and policy changes, that
are close to optimal. In particular, we provide tools to decide which policies
should be implemented and when should a...
Whenever the government makes medical resource allocation choices, there will be opportunity costs associated with those choices: some patients will have treatment and live longer, while a different group of patients will die prematurely. Because of this, we have to make sure that the benefits we get from investing in treatment A are large enough to justify the benefits forgone from not investing in the next best alternative, treatment B. There has been an increase in spending and reallocation of resources during the COVID-19 pandemic that may have been warranted given the urgency of the situation. However, these actions do not bypass the opportunity cost principle although they can appear to in the short term, since spending increases cannot continue indefinitely and there are patient groups who lose out when resources are redirected to pandemic services. Therefore, policy-makers...
Social distancing and lockdown measures are among the main government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. These measures aim to limit the COVID-19 infection rate and reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19. Given we are likely to see local lockdowns until a treatment or vaccine for COVID-19 is available, and their effectiveness depends on public acceptability, it is important to understand public preference for government responses. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), this study will investigate the public’s preferences for pandemic responses in the UK. Attributes (and levels) are based on: (1) lockdown measures described in policy documents; (2) literature on preferences for lockdown measures and (3) a social media analysis. Attributes include: lockdown type; lockdown length; postponement of usual non-urgent medical care; number of excess deaths; number of infections; impact on...
COVID-19 mitigation measures such as social distancing and mask wearing appear to be cost effective on college campuses, but routine laboratory testing would not be cost effective at current costs according to findings of a US study published in Annals of Internal Medicine.The Clinical and Economic Analysis of COVID-19 interventions (CEACOV) model was used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of 24 COVID-19 mitigation strategies including social distancing, mask wearing, isolation, and laboratory screening every 3, 7 or 14 days, in a US college with 5000 students and 1000 faculty staff within a community population of 100 000. Cost effectiveness was assessed from a modified US societal perspective over a time horizon on one semester (105 days). The assumed cost per laboratory test was $10.
1The number of COVID-19 cases in students was estimated to decrease from 3746 with no mitigation...
A nationwide lockdown during the COVID-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic would save lives in Israel but would not be cost effective, according to findings of a study published in Value in Health.A modified Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered, and Deceased (SEIRD) model was used to evaluate the cost effectivness of a nationwide lockdown (with essential shopping or medical treatment permitted, and 14-day isolation in exposed individuals) to prevent COVID-19-related deaths in Israel (population nine million), compared with social distancing and focussed testing, tracing and isolation in people at high risk of exposure to COVID-19, from the perspective of the Israel Ministry of Health over a 200-day time horizon.The estimated number of deaths was lower under nationwide lockdown than under the strategy of testing, tracing and isolation of high-risk people (n=303.5 vs 577.8), but estimated...