The study objective assessed the energy demand and economic cost of two hospital-based COVID-19 infection control interventions: negative pressure (NP) treatment rooms and xenon pulsed ultraviolet (XP-UV) equipment. After projecting COVID-19 hospitalizations, a Hospital Energy Model and Infection De-escalation Models quantified increases in energy demand and reductions in infections. The NP intervention was applied to 11, 22, and 44 rooms for small, medium, and large hospitals, while the XP-UV equipment was used eight, nine, and ten hours a day. For small, medium, and large hospitals, the annum kWh for NP rooms were 116,700 kWh, 332,530 kWh, 795,675 kWh, which correspond to annum energy costs of $11,845 ($1,077/room), $33,752 ($1,534/room), and $80,761 ($1,836/room). For XP-UV, the annum-kilowatt-hours (and costs) were 438 ($45), 493 ($50), and 548 ($56) for small, medium, and...
The new coronavirus pandemic has appreciably impacted morbidity and mortality, as well as having an economic impact worldwide. New vaccines are a potential way forward to reduce transmission rates and subsequent infection. In Brazil, vaccines are being distributed via the public sector; however, in the future, they will be available in the private market. Information about consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical vaccine against SARS CoV-2 can help future price setting discussions. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consumers in the five regions of Brazil regarding the WTP for a hypothetical vaccine against SARS CoV-2 with a 50% efficacy. A total of 1402 individuals over 18 years of age who declared not having COVID-19 at the time of the survey were interviewed. The acceptability for this hypothetical vaccine was 80.7%. In addition, the amount of WTP by...
The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of applying non-pharmacological measures. Among these, mass screening of the asymptomatic general population has been established as a priority strategy by carrying out diagnostic tests to limit the spread of the virus. In this article, we aim to evaluate the economic impact of mass COVID-19 screenings of an asymptomatic population through a Cost-Benefit Analysis based on the estimated total costs of mass screening versus health gains and associated health costs avoided. Excluding the value of monetized health, the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated at approximately 0.45. However, if monetized health is included in the calculation, the ratio is close to 1.20. The monetization of health is the critical element that tips the scales in favour of the desirability of screening. Screenings with the highest...
Objectives To evaluate the cost effectiveness of an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 whole area testing pilot.
Design Epidemiological modelling and cost effectiveness analysis.
Setting The community of Merthyr Tydfil County Borough between20 Nov and 21 Dec 2020.
Participants A total of 33,822 people tested as part of the pilot in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough, 712 of whom tested positive by lateral flow test and reported being asymptomatic.
Main outcome measures Estimated number of cases, hospitalisations, ICU admissions and deaths prevented, and associated costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and monitory cost to the healthcare system.
Results An initial conservative estimate of 360 (95% CI: 311 – 418) cases were prevented by the mass testing, representing a would-be reduction of 11% of all cases diagnosed in Merthyr Tydfil residents during the same period....
High frequency screening of populations has been proposed as a strategy in facilitating control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We use computational modeling, coupled with clinical data from rapid antigen tests, to predict the impact of frequent viral antigen rapid testing on COVID-19 spread and outcomes. Using patient nasal or nasopharyngeal swab specimens, we demonstrate that the sensitivity/specificity of two rapid antigen tests compared to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) are 82.0%/100% and 84.7%/85.7%, respectively; moreover, sensitivity correlates directly with viral load. Based on COVID-19 data from three regions in the United States and São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, we show that high frequency, strategic population-wide rapid testing, even at varied accuracy levels, diminishes COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths at a fraction of the...
COVID-19 has caused an enormous burden on healthcare facilities around the
world. Cohorting patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) into “bubbles”
has been proposed as an infection-control mechanism. In this paper, we present
a novel and flexible model for clustering patient care in healthcare facilities
into bubbles in order to minimize infection spread. Our model aims to control a
variety of costs to patients/residents and HCPs so as to avoid hidden,
downstream adverse effects of clustering patient care. This model leads to a
discrete optimization problem that we call the BubbleClustering problem. This
problem takes as input a temporal visit graph, representing HCP mobility,
including visits by HCPs to patient/resident rooms. The output of the problem
is a rewired visit graph, obtained by partitioning HCPs and patient rooms into
bubbles and rewiring HCP visits to patient...
A mathematical model of COVID-19 is presented where the decision to increase or decrease social distancing is modelled dynamically as a function of the measured active and total cases as well as the perceived cost of isolating. Along with the cost of isolation, we define an overburden healthcare cost and a total cost. We explore these costs by adjusting parameters that could change with policy decisions. We observe that two disease prevention practices, namely increasing isolation activity and increasing incentive to isolate do not always lead to optimal health outcomes. We demonstrate that this is due to the fatigue and cost of isolation. We further demonstrate that an increase in the number of lock-downs, each of shorter duration can lead to minimal costs. Our results are compared with case data in Ontario, Canada from March to August 2020 and details of expanding the results to...
Remdesivir given for 5 days is a cost-effective treatment for patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 in China, according to a study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.The study used a dynamic compartment transmission model to evaluate the cost effectiveness of remdesivir given for 5 days, compared with standard of care, for the treatment of patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19. The base-case analysis assumed an acquisition cost of ¥16 600 ($US2340) for the 5-day remdesivir treatment course. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the healthcare system in China.The model projected that 5 days of treatment with remdesivir was associated with a net gain of 6947 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over the 55-day time horizon at an incremental cost of ¥97.93 million (year 2020 value). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for...