Introduction: Millions of U.S. patients have been hospitalized for COVID-19. After discharge, these patients often have extensive health care needs, but out-of-pocket burden for this care is poorly described. We assessed out-of-pocket spending within 90 days of discharge from COVID-19 hospitalization among privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients.
Methods: In May 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the IQVIA PharMetrics ® Plus for Academics Database, a national de-identified claims database. Among privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March-June 2020, we calculated mean out-of-pocket spending for care within 90 days of discharge. For context, we repeated analyses for patients hospitalized for pneumonia.
Results: Among 1,465 COVID-19 patients included, 516 (35.2%) and 949 (64.8%) were covered by private...
This paper compares the direct benefits to the State of Western Australia from employing a “suppression” policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic rather than a “herd immunity” approach. An S-I-R (susceptible-infectious-resolved) model is used to estimate the likely benefits of a suppression COVID-19 response compared to a herd immunity alternative. Direct impacts of the virus are calculated on the basis of sick leave, hospitalizations, and fatalities, while indirect impacts related to response actions are excluded. Preliminary modeling indicates that approximately 1700 vulnerable person deaths are likely to have been prevented over 1 year from adopting a suppression response rather than a herd immunity response, and approximately 4500 hospitalizations. These benefits are valued at around AUD4.7 billion. If a do nothing policy had been adopted, the number of people in need of...
The most recent vulnerability of societal structures exposed by covid-19 is the inability of pharmaceutical regulation systems to ensure global vaccine coverage. We are currently seeking to resolve problems related to demand (exacerbated by vaccine nationalism) with alternative solutions such as fair and equitable priority setting,1 none of which helps achieve universal coverage. The solution is to combine priority setting with the other side of the economic equation—supply.
The COVID-19 pandemic substantially increased medical care requirements and associated costs in the older fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiary population in the USA, according to a study published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Authorities in Somalia responded with drastic measures after the first confirmed COVID-19 case in mid-March 2020, closing borders, schools, limiting travel and prohibiting most group functions. However, the impact of the pandemic in Somalia thereafter remained unclear. This study employs a novel remote qualitative research method in a conflict-affected setting to look at how some of the most at-risk internally displaced and host populations were impacted by COVID-19, what determined their responses, and how this affected their health and socio-economic vulnerability. We conducted a remote qualitative study, using Katikati, a 1-to-1 conversation management and analysis platform using short message service (SMS) developed by Lark Systems with Africa’s Voices Foundation (AVF), for semi-structured interviews over three months with participants in Mogadishu and Baidoa. We recruited a...
Global burden of COVID-19 has not been well studied, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and value of statistical life (VSL) metrics were therefore proposed to quantify its impacts on health and economic loss globally. The life expectancy, cases, and death numbers of COVID-19 until 30th April 2021 were retrieved from open data to derive the epidemiological profiles and DALYs (including years of life lost (YLL) and years loss due to disability (YLD)) by four periods. The VSL estimates were estimated by using hedonic wage method (HWM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). The estimate of willingness to pay using CVM was based on the meta-regression mixed model. Machine learning method was used for classification. Globally, DALYs (in thousands) due to COVID-19 was tallied as 31,930 from Period I to IV. YLL dominated over YLD. The estimates of VSL were US$591 billion and US$5135...
The spread of the emerging pathogen, named as SARS-CoV-2, has led to an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic since 1918 influenza pandemic. This review first sheds light on the similarity on global transmission, surges of pandemics, and the disparity of prevention between two pandemics. Such a brief comparison also provides an insight into the potential sequelae of COVID-19 based on the inference drawn from the fact that a cascade of successive influenza pandemic occurred after 1918 and also the previous experience on the epidemic of SARS and MERS occurring in 2003 and 2015, respectively. We then propose a systematic framework for elucidating emerging infectious disease (EID) such as COVID-19 with a panorama viewpoint from natural infection and disease process, public health interventions (non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccine), clinical treatments and therapies...
Vaccine is supposed to be the most effective means to prevent COVID-19 as it may not only save lives but also reduce productivity loss due to resuming pre-pandemic activities. Providing the results of economic evaluation for mass vaccination is of paramount importance for all stakeholders worldwide. We developed a Markov decision tree for the economic evaluation of mass vaccination against COVID-19. The effectiveness of reducing outcomes after the administration of three COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and AZD1222 (Oxford-AstraZeneca)) were modelled with empirical parameters obtained from literatures. The direct cost of vaccine and COVID-19 related medical cost, the indirect cost of productivity loss due to vaccine jabs and hospitalization, and the productivity loss were accumulated given different vaccination scenarios. We reported the...
Strategies adopted globally to mitigate the threat of COVID-19 have primarily
involved lockdown measures with substantial economic and social costs with
varying degrees of success. Morbidity patterns of COVID-19 variants have a
strong association with age, while restrictive lockdown measures have
association with negative mental health outcomes in some age groups. Reduced
economic prospects may also afflict some age cohorts more than others.
Motivated by this, we propose a model to describe COVID-19 community spread
incorporating the role of age-specific social interactions. Through a flexible
parameterisation of an age-structured deterministic Susceptible Exposed
Infectious Removed (SEIR) model, we provide a means for characterising
different forms of lockdown which may impact specific age groups differently.
Social interactions are represented through age group to age group...
THE SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted our healthcare system in myriad ways, many of which are brutally obvious to anyone with even a cursory knowledge of current events (overrun intensive care units, ventilator and personal protective equipment shortages, and nearly 500,000 deaths in the United States as of the writing of this editorial). There are, however, more subtle effects that the pandemic has wrought on both the health of Americans and the healthcare system that are no less insidious despite the lack of above-the-fold headlines. Prominent among these are the sequelae of prolonged social isolation, fear of COVID-19 infection, and postponed routine and semiurgent medical care (either due to efforts by medical professionals to conserve limited hospital beds and other resources or patients avoiding care in order to minimize their risk of...